According to a report by Element Energy [commissioned and funded by Transport & Environment, in collaboration with Renault-Nissan, Ente Nazionale per l'Energia eLettrica S.p.A (Enel), and Iberdrola] a switch from passive to smart charging of electric vehicles (EV) could save France, Italy, Spain and the UK between EUR500 million and EUR1.3 billion each per year.

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